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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ksu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/3333

    Title: 噴射機車排放污染防制技術之研發
    Research of exhaust emission control strategy on fuel injection motorcycle
    Authors: 洪榮芳
    Keywords: 機車引擎
    Motorcycle engine
    cold start
    catalytic converter
    exhaust emission
    carbon deposit
    Date: 2009-02-10
    Issue Date: 2009-08-14 22:33:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 國內機車大部分均為長期處於短程、低速狀況下行駛,觸媒溫度很難提升達反應狀態,除污染排放無法降低外,亦可能在觸媒表面形成沈積物,造成觸媒無法作用。故冷起動期間、或低速狀態下污染排放的降低,為改善引擎污染排放相當重要的課題。另外,噴射引擎的燃料在進氣系統中的沉積,也會導致噴嘴供油控制不準、進氣空燃比的偏差,而造成排氣中的污染物濃度增高,因此必須避免引擎進氣系統的積碳現象。為解決上述問題,本研究進行噴射機車冷車時之觸媒快速達轉化溫度及進氣系統積碳抑制之研究,並獲得許多相當重要的成果。觸媒預熱確可改善引擎冷起動的污染排放,而且在觸媒前段加熱的效果最好,後段加熱的效果較差。經由耐久測試可知,隨著行車里程的增加,CO 污染排放有隨之增加的趨勢,但這未必然導因於觸媒的老化,也可能是供油系統的變異。另由觸媒表面SEM 的觀察,可知隨著行車里程的增加,觸媒表面的孔隙度越不明顯,這也可導致污染排放變差的原因之一。主動式二次空氣配合觸媒轉化器對機車的CO 及HC 污染排放有良好的淨化效果,隨著二次空氣供氣量的增加,污染排放的CO 及HC 濃度大幅降低。節氣門卡碳程度與耐久里程呈現正變關係。Pt 及Ni 薄膜具有抑制卡碳的成效;Cr 薄膜現象較複雜而難以評估;Ti 薄膜反而會增長卡碳的負面情況。由汽油添加劑試驗可知,單倍劑量添加劑對於進氣閥積污清除效果較不顯著;若以兩倍劑量試驗,則有較明顯之進氣閥積污(IVD)清除效果;另將節氣門積污化驗後,發現積污的成分含有多量S、P、Zn、Ca 等機油常有元素,因此判斷節氣門積碳主要來自曲軸吹漏氣,裝上過濾器後確有改善廢氣排放的效果。在噴油控制技術建立方面,應用引擎容積效率表建立前饋控制法則,及應用PI 控制器建立回饋控制法則控制燃油噴射量,可將機車引擎混合氣空燃比快速修正至理想值14.7 或稀混合氣16.0,即使引擎在長時間使用後或轉速連續變化時,混合氣空燃比仍可保持在理想值14.7 或稀混合氣空燃比為16.0 附近。In Taiwan, motorcycles are very important transportation tools for short distance.Usually the distance for motorcycles are not long enough for the catalytic converterheated to working temperature, the efficiency of catalyst is low and the exhaustemission is very high. Furthermore, the deposit may be accumulated on the surface ofcatalytic converter as the motorcycle is driven at low speed condition, and it willdeteriorate the activity of the catalyst. Hence, the improvement of the reaction featureof catalyst is significant. The effects of carbon deposition of the throttle valve on theperformance of the motorcycle engine are very serious. First of all, the control for theintake flow rate will be distortion. Hence, the ratio of air/fuel can not be managedwell. Moreover, the pollution of the emitted gas is increasing significantly. Therefore,it is necessary to avoid the carbon deposition on the throttle valve.Significant results were obtained after a series experiments were carried out.Pre-heating of catalyst could improve the exhaust emission of engine at cold start.The better results could be obtained by heating at the front of the catalyst. It alsoshowed that the emission increased with driving distance in the durability test.However, it may not be caused by the deterioration of catalyst; in contrast, it may bedue to the variation of fuel supply system. In addition, from the observation of SEMphotos, the porosity of the catalyst surface was becoming unobvious as the drivingdistance increased. It may be one of the reasons causing the increase of exhaustemissions. Further, it has a large reduction for the CO and HC emissions to use theactive secondary air device combined with the catalyst. The CO and HC emissionsdecrease largely with the increase of the active secondary air. Concerning theinvestigation of deposit on the intake valve, it was found that the deposition of thethrottle valve surface increased with the locomotive running kilometers. Pt and Nicoatings can significantly decrease the carbon deposition of the throttle valve surface.However, the case for Cr film is too complex to estimate. In addition, it is surprisingthat Ti coating significantly increase the carbon deposition of the throttle valvesurface. Moreover, from the test of intake valve detergent additive showed that theintake valve deposit can be removed over 20% by double dosage additive. In thestudy of fuel injection strategy, by using the feedforward control and feedback control strategies to control the injection fuel, the mixture air/fuel ratios will be fastcontrolled around the stoichiometric value of 14.7 or the lean value of 16.0. Thefeedforward control strategy is developed based on a volume efficiency table and thefeedback control strategy is developed based on a PI controller.
    Appears in Collections:[機械工程系所] 研究計畫

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