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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.ksu.edu.tw/handle/987654321/30871


    Title: 使用毒性化學物質之環境監測與健康風險評估—以自來水淨水工程為例
    其他題名: Environmental Monitoring and Health Risk Assessment for the Use of Toxic Chemicals: For the Example of Tap Water Purification Project in Taiwan
    Authors: 劉宇軒
    Liu, Yu-Xuan
    指導教授: 許蕙琳
    Sheu, Hwey-Lin
    Keywords: 毒性化學物質;環境監測;風險評估;自來水
    Toxic chemicals;Environmental monitoring;Risk assessment;Tap water
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2020-03-24 12:00:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 工作人員在作業的工作場依照法規應辦理環境監測,採取規劃、採樣、測定及分析行為,以明瞭作業環境中是否有害空氣污染物或毒性化學物質的濃度分布進而來評估人員暴露或接觸情形,有無會對健康影響或立即之危害,是否符合「勞工作業環境監測實施辦法」之容許濃度規範標準,與設備設置使用成效,以及對人體健康風險之影響等。自來水的供應需經淨水處理後,再經由配水、供水等,最後才能送達用戶使用。所以自來水處理為達成基本目標,確保飲用水質,必需使用氯氣毒性化學物質進行消毒,以保持水中餘氯,以及使用錳、鉻等毒化物或氯仿揮發性有機溶劑進行水質相關檢驗,以符合安全水質。因此人員作業每半年就需依法令規定實施工作場所環境監測,包括區域監測與人員監測,工作場所內之環境固定或移動性、經常與非經常性人員可能暴露情形,並藉由環境監測結果報告,了解人員暴露污染危害風險,進而提升人員及作業場所設施與設備之防治成效與健康管理。本研究顯示,針對自來水使用H2SO4、K2CrO4、KMnO4、CHCl3與Cl2等毒性化學物質與揮發性有機溶劑的環境風險評估,雖然其健康危害HHR屬於高風險範疇,但是監測作業環境中空氣污染物的濃度(mg/m3、ppm),遠低於法規值PEL-Ceiling(Permissible Exposure Limit)或TWA(Time-Weighted Average),且作業現場皆有最低風險值的完善通風排氣控制設備與減少暴露危害ER,所以暴露危害評估HER尚未有急需改善之結果。即使每天連續大量使用氯氣(每日1,000 kg,一年365天),其作業頻率危害指數與使用量危害指數亦屬於中高風險的氯氣作業環境,但是作業人員於長期工作之環境下仍無不適之影響。顯然,毒性化學物質使用的作業環境,往往無法避免毒化物的蒸發與逸散至空氣中,但是通風排氣良好的輔助設備,是可大大降低空氣中污染物的濃度分佈,進而減少作業人員健康危害之影響,此論點已由本作業環境人員的特殊健康檢查結果並無不適得到應證。
    The staff shall conduct environmental monitoring in accordance with the regulations in the working field of the operation, and taking advantage of planning, sampling, measuring and analyzing to understand whether the concentration distribution of harmful air pollutants or toxic chemicals in the operating environment Furthermore, it assesses whether the contacting or exposure of personnel will have an immediate impact on health, and whether it meets the allowable concentration standard of the "Measures for the Implementation of Labor Work Environment Monitoring", and the effectiveness of equipment installation of using, and the impact on human health risks. The supply of tap water needs to be treated by water purification, then through water distribution, water supplying, and so on, and finally can be delivered to users for using. Therefore, in order to achieve the basic goal of water treatment and ensure the quality of the drinking water, it is necessary to use chlorine toxic chemicals for disinfection to maintain residual chlorine in water, and use manganese, chromium and other toxic chemicals or chloroform volatile organic solvents for water quality related inspection to meet the safety of water quality. So people need to implement the job every six months according to the law provisions implementing workplace environmental monitoring, including regional monitoring and surveillance personnel, the fixed environment within the workplace or mobility, often non-recurring personnel exposing situations, and to learn personnel hazards by exposing under the contamination, by the results of environmental monitoring report thus enhancing the personnel and workplace facilities of the effectiveness of prevention and health management equipment. This study was shown for tap water used sulfuric acid (H2SO4)、potassium dichromate (K2CrO4)、potassium permanganate (KMnO4)、chloroform (CHCl3) and chlorine (Cl2) et. al., chemical compounds with using environmental risk assessment of Toxic Chemical Substances and Volatile Organic Solvents. Although its health hazard rating (HHR) and exposure rating (ER) belong to high risk levels, measuring the concentration of air pollutants in the activity surrounding (mg/m3, ppm), was further lower than the regulatory limits of PEL-Ceiling (Permissible Exposure Limit) or TWA (Time-Weighted Average), and the site buildings all have the lowest risk value of the most efficiency ventilation and exhaust control equipment. So the assessment of exposure hazard rating (HER) has not yet had the urgent requirement to improve the results. Even use a large amount of chlorine continuously every day for a year (1,000 kg per day, 365 days a year), its usage of operating frequency hazard index and the using quantity of hazard index also belong to the high risk of chlorine using operating environment, but the working man in the long term working environment was still no discomfort or harmful be found. Obviously, the activity surrounding environment for the use of toxic chemicals, it was could not avoid the toxic compound of the evaporation and escape to the air surrounding. However, more efficiency ventilation and auxiliary equipment can greatly reduce the concentration of pollutants in the air distribution, and thus improve the personnel and workplace facilities and equipment controlling effectiveness in indoor health management. Thereby reducing the impact of health hazards of workers, this paper argument has been proved due to the staff of the environmental worker of the particular and physical health examination results are not discomfort and harmful .
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程系所] 博碩士論文

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